UPDATE : ARBchek

This Report is a product of Securities Arbitration Commentator, Inc.

New Award Briefs

Report Dated: 2022-08-04

2022-17

Primary Sort

Secondary Sort

Dispute Information

Damages*

TypeDisp

EmployeeMember

Allegation I

Expungement(CRD)

Short Caption

Brewer v. Morgan Keegan

Allegation II

Forum

FINRA

Allegation III

Docket No

21-02546

Products

MutualFunds

Issue Date

2022-07-14

Situs

Birmingham

State

AL

Clmd Compensatory

Equity

Total Amt Awarded

Equity

Compensatory Awarded

Equity

Punitive Damage Awarded

Attorney Fees Awarded

* Damage field dollar figures are divided by 1,000 and rounded to the nearest $100; e.g., $2,500 appears as" 2.5."

Case Summary

Two brokers are each awarded expungement of two customer complaints from appearing on their respective CRD records.

Notes

Panel composition issue. Arbitrator Remarks -- Expungement granted.

People & Entities

Arbitrators

Michael J. Ahlstrom, Esq.

Broker-Dealers Named

Morgan Keegan & Company LLC; Raymond James & Associates Incorporated

Professionals

  • Cs: (JDB & JCB) Harris Freedman, HLBS Law, Westminster, CO.
  • Rs: (MK&CLLC) No-show.
  • Rs: (RJ&AInc) Laura T. Ruiz Rivera, Assistant General Counsel, St. Petersburg, FL. ISC.

TypeDisp

MemberEmployee

Allegation I

LoanDefault

Short Caption

First Allied v. Fineman

Allegation II

BreachContract

Forum

FINRA

Allegation III

UnjustEnrichment

Docket No

21-02803

Products

PromissoryNote

Issue Date

2022-07-15

Situs

San Diego

State

CA

Clmd Compensatory

108.3

Total Amt Awarded

129.4

Compensatory Awarded

108.3

Punitive Damage Awarded

Attorney Fees Awarded

21.1

* Damage field dollar figures are divided by 1,000 and rounded to the nearest $100; e.g., $2,500 appears as" 2.5."

Case Summary

In this default proceeding, a non-appearing registered representative is held liable for the amount due and owing pursuant to a Promissory Note agreement and Independent Contractor Agreement.

Notes

Rule 13801 default judgment. Arbitrator Remarks.

Arbitrators

Charles Chia-Lin Hsieh

Broker-Dealers Named

First Allied Securities Incorporated

Professionals

  • Cs: (FASInc) David G. Smitham, Cetera Financial Group, El Segundo, CA. ISC.
  • Rs: (NSF) No-show.

TypeDisp

EmployeeMember

Allegation I

Expungement(CRD)

Short Caption

Bowers v. Gold Coast

Allegation II

Forum

FINRA

Allegation III

Docket No

22-00021

Products

DirectInvesmts

Issue Date

2022-07-11

Situs

Los Angeles

State

CA

Clmd Compensatory

Equity

Total Amt Awarded

Equity

Compensatory Awarded

Equity

Punitive Damage Awarded

Attorney Fees Awarded

* Damage field dollar figures are divided by 1,000 and rounded to the nearest $100; e.g., $2,500 appears as" 2.5."

Case Summary

Claimant broker is granted his request for expungement of a customer complaint from appearing on his CRD record.

Notes

Panel composition issue. Arbitrator Remarks -- Expungement granted.

Arbitrators

Andrew M. Mintzer, CPA

Broker-Dealers Named

Gold Coast Securities Incorporated

Professionals

  • Cs: (JTB) Zachary Morse, HLBS Law, Westminster, CO.
  • Rs: (GCSInc) Tae P. Ho, Thousand Oaks, CA. ISC.

TypeDisp

EmployeeMember

Allegation I

WrongTerm

Short Caption

DesRochers v. UBS Financial

Allegation II

Compensatn

Forum

FINRA

Allegation III

Fraud

Docket No

20-00043

Products

PromissoryNote

Issue Date

2022-07-13

Situs

Hartford

State

CT

Clmd Compensatory

0.0

Total Amt Awarded

0.0

Compensatory Awarded

0.0

Punitive Damage Awarded

0.0

Attorney Fees Awarded

0.0

* Damage field dollar figures are divided by 1,000 and rounded to the nearest $100; e.g., $2,500 appears as" 2.5."

Case Summary

In this unusual case, Claimant broker is found not liable to Respondent broker-dealer and T-Pty Respondent broker-dealer for the amounts allegedly due and owing under a promissory note agreement. However, said Claimant broker also loses his case against Respondent broker-dealers for wrongful termination and compensation.

Notes

None.

Arbitrators

David Adams Reif - Chair; Sean Alan D'Amico; James Bromley Bragg

Broker-Dealers Named

UBS Financial Services Incorporated; UBS Credit Corporation

Professionals

  • Cs: (SD) Leonard B. Rose, Lewis Brisbois et al., Kansas City, MO.
  • Rs: (UBSFSInc) Michael F. Braun, Howard & Howard Attorneys PLLC, Chicago, IL. OSC.
  • T-Pty Cs: (UBSCCorp) Michael F. Braun, Howard & Howard Attorneys PLLC, Chicago, IL. OSC.
  • T-Pty Rs: (SD) Leonard B. Rose, Lewis Brisbois et al., Kansas City, MO.

TypeDisp

EmployeeMember

Allegation I

Expungement(CRD)

Short Caption

Luna Vida v. Santander Securities

Allegation II

Forum

FINRA

Allegation III

Docket No

22-00534

Products

MuniSecs

Issue Date

2022-07-14

Situs

Washington

State

DC

Clmd Compensatory

Equity

Total Amt Awarded

Equity

Compensatory Awarded

Equity

Punitive Damage Awarded

Attorney Fees Awarded

* Damage field dollar figures are divided by 1,000 and rounded to the nearest $100; e.g., $2,500 appears as" 2.5."

Case Summary

Claimant broker is granted expungement of seven customer complaints from appearing on her CRD record involving the purchase of Puerto Rican municipal bonds.

Notes

Arbitrators

Patricia Horan Latham, Esq.

Broker-Dealers Named

Santander Securities LLC

Professionals

  • Cs: (BLV) David I. Hantman, Bressler Amery & Ross, New York, NY.
  • Rs: (SSLLC) Sara L. Velez-Santiago & Jason Aguilo, Pietrantoni Mendez & Alvarez, San Juan, PR. OSC.

TypeDisp

CustomerMember

Allegation I

Suitability

Short Caption

Miller v. Newbridge Securities

Allegation II

BreachFiducDty

Forum

FINRA

Allegation III

Supervision

Docket No

21-00547

Products

REITs

Issue Date

2022-07-11

Situs

Orlando

State

FL

Clmd Compensatory

0.0

Total Amt Awarded

Equity

Compensatory Awarded

Equity

Punitive Damage Awarded

0.0

Attorney Fees Awarded

* Damage field dollar figures are divided by 1,000 and rounded to the nearest $100; e.g., $2,500 appears as" 2.5."

Case Summary

Two customers on behalf of their respective IRAs settle their case against Respondent broker-dealer involving the purchase of various REIT investments. Non-Party registered rep is awarded expungement of this matter from his CRD record.

Notes

This is a Stipulated Award. Arbitrator Remarks -- Expungement granted.

Arbitrators

Stuart K. Furman - Chair; Mauricio Arcadier, JD; John Briggs

Broker-Dealers Named

Newbridge Securities Corporation

Professionals

  • Cs: William B. Young Jr., Collling Gilbert et al., Orlando, FL.
  • Rs: (NSCorp) Zachary Hayes-Macaluso & Gregg Breitbart, Kaufman Dolowich & Voluck, Fort Lauderdale, FL. OSC.

TypeDisp

CustomerMember

Allegation I

Suitability

Short Caption

Barnett v. Arkadios Capital

Allegation II

Misreprestn

Forum

FINRA

Allegation III

Supervision

Docket No

21-00650

Products

DirectInvesmts

Issue Date

2022-07-11

Situs

Atlanta

State

GA

Clmd Compensatory

200.0

Total Amt Awarded

Equity

Compensatory Awarded

Equity

Punitive Damage Awarded

0.0

Attorney Fees Awarded

0.0

* Damage field dollar figures are divided by 1,000 and rounded to the nearest $100; e.g., $2,500 appears as" 2.5."

Case Summary

A customer alleging unsuitability with respect to his investment in GPB Capital Holdings LLC settles his case against Respondent broker-dealer. Non-Party broker is granted expungement of this matter from his CRD record.

Notes

This is a Stipulated Award. All-Public Panel. Arbitrator Remarks -- Expungement granted.

Arbitrators

James C. Hoover, Esq. - Chair; Michael Ryan Peacock, Esq.; Lakeya Brantley

Broker-Dealers Named

Arkadios Capital

Professionals

  • Cs: Adam J. Weinstein, Gana Weinstein LLP, New York, NY.
  • Rs: (ACptl) Peter B. King & R. Max McKinley, Guerra King PA, Tampa, FL. OSC.

TypeDisp

EmployeeMember

Allegation I

Expungement(CRD)

Short Caption

McAtee v. Pruco Securities

Allegation II

Forum

FINRA

Allegation III

Docket No

21-03077

Products

VariableAnnuities; Insurance

Issue Date

2022-07-12

Situs

Indianapolis

State

IN

Clmd Compensatory

Equity

Total Amt Awarded

Equity

Compensatory Awarded

Equity

Punitive Damage Awarded

Attorney Fees Awarded

* Damage field dollar figures are divided by 1,000 and rounded to the nearest $100; e.g., $2,500 appears as" 2.5."

Case Summary

An Arbitrator awards Claimant broker expungement of three customer complaints form appearing on his CRD record.

Notes

Panel composition issue. Arbitrator Remarks -- Expungement granted.

Arbitrators

Gregory G. Gocek

Broker-Dealers Named

Pruco Securities LLC

Professionals

  • Cs: (JJM) Samantha Pastor & Dochtor Kennedy, AdvisorLaw LLC, Westminster, CO.
  • Rs: (PSLLC) Jennifer E. Novoselsky, Reyes Kurson Limited, Chicago, IL. OSC.

TypeDisp

EmployeeEmployee

Allegation I

WrongTerm

Short Caption

Rowles v. Woerdeman

Allegation II

Compensatn

Forum

FINRA

Allegation III

BreachContract

Docket No

21-01469

Products

NP

Issue Date

2022-07-11

Situs

Boston

State

MA

Clmd Compensatory

499.0

Total Amt Awarded

0.0

Compensatory Awarded

0.0

Punitive Damage Awarded

0.0

Attorney Fees Awarded

0.0

* Damage field dollar figures are divided by 1,000 and rounded to the nearest $100; e.g., $2,500 appears as" 2.5."

Case Summary

A broker alleging wrongful termination and seeking owed wages loses her case against Respondent broker.

Notes

None.

Arbitrators

Andrea J. Goldman, Esq. - Chair; B. John Dill; Christine R. Fitzgerald

Broker-Dealers Named

None.

Professionals

  • Cs: (AER) John E. Sutherland, Brickley / Sears PA, Boston, MA.
  • Rs: (GW) Louis M. Ciavarra, Bowditch & Dewey, Worcester, MA.

TypeDisp

CustomerMember

Allegation I

DeclaratoryJudgment

Short Caption

Bardavon Health Innovations v. Spurrier Capital

Allegation II

Misreprestn

Forum

FINRA

Allegation III

ExcessiveFees

Docket No

21-02307

Products

NP

Issue Date

2022-07-12

Situs

Kansas City

State

MO

Clmd Compensatory

100.0

Total Amt Awarded

0.0

Compensatory Awarded

0.0

Punitive Damage Awarded

Attorney Fees Awarded

* Damage field dollar figures are divided by 1,000 and rounded to the nearest $100; e.g., $2,500 appears as" 2.5."

Case Summary

A customer alleging that it was charged fees for services not rendered by Respondent broker-dealer loses its case and is held liable to Respondent broker-dealer for $1.6 million in damages on its breach of contract Counterclaim relating to an engagement letter.

Notes

Big $s (Counterclaim). All-Public Panel.

Arbitrators

James C. Morrow, Esq. - Chair; David W. White; Amy L. Coopman, Esq.

Broker-Dealers Named

Spurrier Capital Partners LLC

Professionals

  • Cs: Robert A. Henderson, Polsinelli PC, Kansas City, MO.
  • Rs: (SCPLLC) Joseph P. Rockers & Jordan Benson, Goodwin Procter LLP, Boston, MA. OSC and Jim Griffin, Scharnhorst Ast et al., Kansas City, MO. OSC.

TypeDisp

CustomerMember

Allegation I

Suitability

Short Caption

Puglia-Elmo v. Morgan Stanley

Allegation II

BreachFiducDty

Forum

FINRA

Allegation III

Supervision

Docket No

21-00934

Products

Equity

Issue Date

2022-07-15

Situs

New York

State

NY

Clmd Compensatory

259.7

Total Amt Awarded

Equity

Compensatory Awarded

Equity

Punitive Damage Awarded

Attorney Fees Awarded

* Damage field dollar figures are divided by 1,000 and rounded to the nearest $100; e.g., $2,500 appears as" 2.5."

Case Summary

Despite the Panel's partially granting Respondents Pre-Hearing Motion to Dismiss pursuant to Rule 12206 (Six-year Eligibility Rule), Claimant customer settles her claims involving the purchase of Weatherford International Ltd., along with other various securities. Respondent broker loses his request for expungement of this matter from his CRD record.

Notes

This is a Stipulated Award. Majority Public Panel.

Arbitrators

Thomas Matthew Madden - Chair; Eric Zaidins; Gary Ford Munowitz, CPA

Broker-Dealers Named

Morgan Stanley

Professionals

  • Cs: David Vermont, Securities Arbitration Law Group PLLC, Washington, DC.
  • Rs: (MSSBLLC & DJS) Abigail Elrod, New York, NY. ISC.

TypeDisp

EmployeeEmployee

Allegation I

LoanDefault

Short Caption

Manto v. Lindenberg

Allegation II

BreachContract

Forum

FINRA

Allegation III

UnjustEnrichment

Docket No

21-01562

Products

PromissoryNote

Issue Date

2022-07-14

Situs

New York

State

NY

Clmd Compensatory

40.5

Total Amt Awarded

52.5

Compensatory Awarded

40.5

Punitive Damage Awarded

Attorney Fees Awarded

12.0

* Damage field dollar figures are divided by 1,000 and rounded to the nearest $100; e.g., $2,500 appears as" 2.5."

Case Summary

Respondent broker is held liable to Claimant registered rep for damages due and owing under a promissory note agreement, while Claimant registered rep is found liable on Respondent broker's Counterclaim. This award is subject to set-off and as such Claimant registered rep's liability to Respondent broker is extinguished.

Notes

Rescission Requested. Set-Off Award. Arbitrator Remarks.

Arbitrators

Wallace Anthony Showman, Esq. - Chair; Thomas D. Giordano, Esq.; Jeffrey Bega

Broker-Dealers Named

None.

Professionals

  • Cs: (GSM) David E. Robbins & Sam A. Silverstein, Kaufmann Gildin & Robbins, New York, NY.
  • Rs: (AHL) Kevin Galbraith, The Galbraith Law Firm, New York, NY.

TypeDisp

CustomerMember

Allegation I

Operations

Short Caption

Schoonover v. Charles Schwab

Allegation II

BreachContract

Forum

FINRA

Allegation III

Supervision

Docket No

21-01827

Products

*

Issue Date

2022-07-13

Situs

New York

State

NY

Clmd Compensatory

68.4

Total Amt Awarded

0.0

Compensatory Awarded

0.0

Punitive Damage Awarded

Attorney Fees Awarded

* Damage field dollar figures are divided by 1,000 and rounded to the nearest $100; e.g., $2,500 appears as" 2.5."

Case Summary

A customer alleging account errors loses his case after the Arbitrator granted Respondent broker-dealer's Motion to Dismiss/Motion for Directed Verdict. The Arbitrator also imposed monetary sanctions against Claimant for discovery violations.

Notes

Directed Verdict -- Full Dismissal. Sanctions imposed.

Arbitrators

Robert Elliot Harrison

Broker-Dealers Named

Charles Schwab & Company Incorporated

Professionals

  • Cs: Pro se.
  • Rs: (CS&CInc) Garrett R. Wynne, Lone Tree, CO. ISC.

TypeDisp

EmployeeMember

Allegation I

Expungement(CRD)

Short Caption

Hadel v. Woodbury Financial

Allegation II

Forum

FINRA

Allegation III

Docket No

21-02545

Products

DirectInvesmts; HedgeFunds

Issue Date

2022-07-11

Situs

New York

State

NY

Clmd Compensatory

Equity

Total Amt Awarded

Equity

Compensatory Awarded

Equity

Punitive Damage Awarded

Attorney Fees Awarded

* Damage field dollar figures are divided by 1,000 and rounded to the nearest $100; e.g., $2,500 appears as" 2.5."

Case Summary

Claimant broker wins his request for expungement of a customer complaint from appearing on his CRD record.

Notes

Arbitrator Remarks -- Expungement granted.

Arbitrators

Joan Maxine Secofsky

Broker-Dealers Named

Woodbury Financial Services Incorporated

Professionals

  • Cs: (EPH) Jessica E. Levine, Winget Spadafora & Schwartzberg, New York, NY.
  • Rs: (WFSInc) James V. Noblett, Jersey City, NJ. ISC.

TypeDisp

EmployeeMember

Allegation I

Reformation(U-5)

Short Caption

Medina v. Chase Investment

Allegation II

Defamation

Forum

FINRA

Allegation III

Docket No

21-02874

Products

NP

Issue Date

2022-07-15

Situs

New York

State

NY

Clmd Compensatory

0.0

Total Amt Awarded

Equity

Compensatory Awarded

0.0

Punitive Damage Awarded

Attorney Fees Awarded

* Damage field dollar figures are divided by 1,000 and rounded to the nearest $100; e.g., $2,500 appears as" 2.5."

Case Summary

An Arbitrator explains in great detail why he has granted Respondent broker-dealer's Pre-Hearing Motion to Dismiss without prejudice Claimant broker's request for reformation of his Form U5 record pursuant to FINRA Rule 13206 (Six-year Eligibility Rule) after finding that said request was not subject to tolling.

Notes

Please Note* This case was administered under the Special Proceeding option for simplified cases. Pre-Hearing Adjudication -- Full Dismissal. Arbitrator Remarks -- Explained Award.

Arbitrators

David John Reilly

Broker-Dealers Named

Chase Investment Services Corporation

Professionals

  • Cs: (JAM) Tosh D. Grebenik, Judex Law LLC, Broomfield, CO.
  • Rs: (CISCorp) Jeffrey S. Dunlap & McClellon D. Cox III, Ulmer & Berne LLP, Cleveland, OH. OSC.

TypeDisp

SmallClms

Allegation I

Suitability

Short Caption

Greenstein v. David Lerner

Allegation II

Misreprestn

Forum

FINRA

Allegation III

Supervision

Docket No

22-00302

Products

DirectInvesmts; MutualFunds

Issue Date

2022-07-12

Situs

New York

State

NY

Clmd Compensatory

23.2

Total Amt Awarded

23.2

Compensatory Awarded

23.2

Punitive Damage Awarded

Attorney Fees Awarded

* Damage field dollar figures are divided by 1,000 and rounded to the nearest $100; e.g., $2,500 appears as" 2.5."

Case Summary

In his small claims case, customer alleging unsuitability with respect to the purchase of various securities including Energy 11 LP, and Spirit of America Income and Opportunity Fund to name a few, is awarded compensatory damages against Respondent broker-dealer. Respondent broker loses his request for expungement of this matter from his CRD record.

Notes

Please Note* This matter proceeded pursuant to Rule 12800 of the Code. Rs Daniel Todd Lerner was not assessed any portion of the awarded amount. Rs David Lerner Associates Inc. was assessed.

Arbitrators

Albert Rizzo

Broker-Dealers Named

David Lerner Associates Incorporated

Professionals

  • Cs: Steven A. Gelfand, Attorney-at-Law, New York, NY.
  • Rs: (DLAInc & DTL) Eugene L. Small, E.L. Small PC, New York, NY. OSC.

TypeDisp

EmployeeMember

Allegation I

Expungement(CRD)

Short Caption

Deemer v. Stifel Nicolaus

Allegation II

Forum

FINRA

Allegation III

Docket No

21-02832

Products

Commodities; Margin

Issue Date

2022-07-15

Situs

Pittsburgh

State

PA

Clmd Compensatory

Equity

Total Amt Awarded

Equity

Compensatory Awarded

Equity

Punitive Damage Awarded

Attorney Fees Awarded

* Damage field dollar figures are divided by 1,000 and rounded to the nearest $100; e.g., $2,500 appears as" 2.5."

Case Summary

Claimant broker is awarded expungement of three customer complaints from appearing on his CRD record but loses his request for expungement of a fourth occurrence.

Notes

Panel composition issue. Arbitrator Remarks -- Expungement granted.

Arbitrators

Louis Charles Schmitt, Jr.

Broker-Dealers Named

Stifel Nicolaus & Company Incorporated; Ryan Beck and Company; Oppenheimer & Company Incorporated

Professionals

  • Cs: (GBD) Brian Luther, FA Expungement LLC, Denver, CO.
  • Rs: (SN&CInc & RB&Co) Paul Klein, St. Louis, MO. ISC.
  • Rs: (O&CInc) Nicola Murphy, New York, NY. ISC.

TypeDisp

EmployeeMember

Allegation I

Misappropriatn

Short Caption

McCutchen v. National Securities

Allegation II

Defamation

Forum

FINRA

Allegation III

Fraud

Docket No

20-03747

Products

NP

Issue Date

2022-07-13

Situs

Columbia

State

SC

Clmd Compensatory

1000.0

Total Amt Awarded

0.0

Compensatory Awarded

0.0

Punitive Damage Awarded

0.0

Attorney Fees Awarded

0.0

* Damage field dollar figures are divided by 1,000 and rounded to the nearest $100; e.g., $2,500 appears as" 2.5."

Case Summary

A broker alleging breach of contract and unjust enrichment and seeking $1,000,000 in damages loses his case against Respondent broker-dealer.

Notes

None.

Arbitrators

Theodore Haynes - Chair; Barbara Black, Esq.; F. John Herrmann

Broker-Dealers Named

National Securities Corporation

Professionals

  • Cs: (GTM) Louis D. Tambaro & Offit Kurman, Offit Kurman PA, Woodbridge, NJ.
  • Rs: (NSCorp) Fred N. Knopf & Joe Galinskie, National Holdings Corporation, New York, NY. ISC.

TypeDisp

EmployeeMember

Allegation I

Expungement(CRD)

Short Caption

Finberg v. Merrill Lynch

Allegation II

Forum

FINRA

Allegation III

Docket No

21-02480

Products

Equity

Issue Date

2022-07-12

Situs

Houston

State

TX

Clmd Compensatory

Equity

Total Amt Awarded

Equity

Compensatory Awarded

Equity

Punitive Damage Awarded

Attorney Fees Awarded

* Damage field dollar figures are divided by 1,000 and rounded to the nearest $100; e.g., $2,500 appears as" 2.5."

Case Summary

Claimant broker is awarded expungement of a customer complaint from his CRD record.

Notes

Panel composition issue. Arbitrator Remarks -- Expungement granted.

Arbitrators

Thomas A. Martin, Esq.

Broker-Dealers Named

Merrill Lynch Pierce Fenner & Smith Incorporated

Professionals

  • Cs: (HMF) Samantha Pastor & Dochtor Kennedy, AdvisorLaw LLC, Westminster, CO.
  • Rs: (MLPFSInc) Katelyn H. Wilson, Bressler Amery & Ross, Birmingham, AL. OSC.

TypeDisp

EmployeeMember

Allegation I

Expungement(CRD)

Short Caption

Dunlap v. Royal Alliance

Allegation II

Forum

FINRA

Allegation III

Docket No

22-00022

Products

DirectInvesmts

Issue Date

2022-07-11

Situs

Houston

State

TX

Clmd Compensatory

0.0

Total Amt Awarded

Equity

Compensatory Awarded

0.0

Punitive Damage Awarded

Attorney Fees Awarded

* Damage field dollar figures are divided by 1,000 and rounded to the nearest $100; e.g., $2,500 appears as" 2.5."

Case Summary

Registered Rep wins expungement of a customer complaint from her CRD record involving the purchase of a GPB Automotive Fund.

Notes

Panel composition issue. Arbitrator Remarks -- Expungement granted.

Arbitrators

Daniel J. Pagnano, Esq.

Broker-Dealers Named

Royal Alliance Associates Incorporated

Professionals

  • Cs: (ALD) Lydia R. Zaidman & Richard A. D'Amura, D'Amura & Zaidman, Austin, TX.
  • Rs: (RAAInc) Jennifer Cox, Advisor Group Incorporated, Jersey City, NJ. ISC.
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